Main Article Content
As the range of customers in cellular era will increase at a geometrical rate, the call for and complexity of the provider is rising, making sure within side they want for cellular operators to shift the provider using difficulty to their core technology with the intention to switch extra information with excessive speed. The 5G cell networks is that the consequences of this paradigm shift and is currently being deployed in advanced nations regardless of the reality that they may be capable of put in force 6G cell networks. However, maximum of the growing nations in addition to Bangladesh ( Middle-earnings country) are, or will be, the usage of 3G or 4G cellular networks very lately for which the general position is not but complete. In this study, we are now exploring how a lot emphasis can be positioned on setting up the 5G cell networks in Bangladesh in addition to health effect of 4G and upcoming 5G cellular networks. We first take note of display that there may be capability for tackling foremost technological demanding situations in Bangladesh while putting in place the 5G cellular networks. The numerous protection factors of 5G cellular networks were provided that is an ongoing hassle and Bangladesh goes to technologically ready to deal with many protection issues of it. At the same time, it has been proven that the context of the usage of 5G networks in Bangladesh is relevant at present. As a result, putting in place the 5G networks in Bangladesh will take now not than expected. Finally, the outcomes of the usage of 4G, 5G cellular networks on human health had been presented.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Rahman, A., Arabi, S. and Rab, R. , “Feasibility and Challenges of 5G Network Deployment in Least Developed Countries (LDC)”, Wireless Sensor Network, 13, 1-16, 2021.
Simon Kemp, ”Digital 2021 October Global Statshot Report”, 21 October 2021, https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2021-october-global-statshot
What Percentage of Internet Traffic Is Mobile in 2020? https://tinyurl.com/y5tp47ak
Arun, K. & Gupta, M., “A review on activities of fifth generation mobile communication system”, Alexandria Engineering, 57, 1125-1135, Elsevier, 2018
NB-IOT: The IoT Game Changer. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/nb-iot-game-changer-reduan-hasan-khan-phd?trk=relatedarticeNB-IoT
Bangladesh Mobile Network Experience Report, July 2021, https://www.opensignal.com/reports/2021/07/bangladesh/mobile-network-experience
Chávez-Santiago, R.; Szydełko, M.; Kliks, A.; Foukalas, F.; Haddad, Y.; Nolan, K.E.; Kelly, M.Y.; Masonta, M.T.; Balasingham, I. 5G: The Convergence of Wireless Communications. Wirel. Pers. Commun. 2015, 83, 1617–1642
Chih-Lin, I.; Han, S.; Xu, Z.; Sun, Q.; Pan, Z. 5G: Rethink mobile communications for 2020+. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 2016, 374, 20140432
Myrtill Simko, Mats-Olof Mattsson, “5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects – A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019
Md. Shariful Islam et al. “Analyzing the Effect of Radiation on Human beings of Electromagnetic waves from BTS and MS in Kushtia, Bangladesh” Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, Vol.12 No.10 (2021), 448-458
International Agency for Research on Cancer. Non-Ionizing Radiation, Part. 2: Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields; International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon, France, 2013; Volume 102, pp. 1–460
Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Opinion on: Potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 2015, 36, 480–484.
SSM’s Scientific Council on Electromagnetic Fields. Recent Research on EMF and Health Risk: Eleventh report from SSM’S Scientific Council on Electromagnetic Fields; Swedish Radiation Safety Authority: Stockholm, Sweden, 2016.
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (Up to 300 GHz). Health Phys. 1998, 74, 494–522.
IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee. IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3kHz to 300 GHz; Technical report No. C95.1-2005; IEEE: Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2006; pp. 1–1991.
IEEE. Available online: https://spectrum.ieee.org/video/telecom/wireless/everything-you-need-to-knowabout-5g (accessed on 8 August 2019).
Yau, Kok-Lim & Qadir, Junaid & Wu, Celimuge & Imran, Muhammad & Ling, Mee. (2018). Cognition-Inspired 5G Cellular Networks: A Review and the Road Ahead. IEEE Access. PP. 1-1. 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2849446.
Tran, Tuan & Navrátil, David & Sanders, Peter & Hart, Jon & Odarchenko, Roman & Barjau, Carlos & Altman, Baruch & Burdinat, Christophe & Gomez-Barquero, David. (2020). Enabling Multicast and Broadcast in the 5G Core for Converged Fixed and Mobile Networks. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting. PP. 1-12. 10.1109/TBC.2020.2991548.
Ordonez-Lucena, J., Ameigeiras, P., Lopez, D., Ramos-Munoz, J.J., Lorca, J. and Folgueira, J. (2017) Network Slicing for 5g with SDN/NFV: Concepts, Architectures, and Challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55, 80-87.
Foukas, X., Patounas, G., Elmokashfi, A. and Marina, M.K. (2017) Network Slicing in 5g: Survey and Challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55, 94-100
Developing Countries Are Hard Hit by High Spectrum Prices. https://www.gsma.com/spectrum/resources/spectrum-prices-developing-countries
5G in Bangladesh: Opportunities & Challenges. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/5g-bangladesh-opportunities-challenges-reduan-hasan-khan-phd
Reynaud, F., Aguessy, F., Bettan, O., Bouet, M. and Conan, V. (2016) Attacks against Network Functions Virtualization and Software-Defined Networking: State-of-the-Art. 2016 IEEE NetSoft Conference and Workshops (NetSoft), Seoul, 6-10 June 2016, 471-476.
Hacked: The Bangladesh Bank Heist. https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/101east/2018/05/hacked-bangladesh-bankheist-18052307003806
Y. Niu, Y. Li, D. Jin, L. Su, and A. V. Vasilakos, “A survey of millimeter wave communications (mmWave) for 5G: opportunities and challenges,” Wirel. Networks, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 2657–2676, 2015, doi: 10.1007/s11276-015-0942-z.
Mian, M. S., Rahman, M. S., Islam, J., Sakib, K. N., Tasnim, M. M., & Yeasmin, S. (2019). In-Situ Environmental Gamma Radiation Monitoring at Ramna Thana, Dhaka, Bangladesh: In-Situ Environmental Gamma Radiation Monitoring. Journal of Scientific Research, 11(3), 263–272.
Igor Belyaev, “Non-thermal Biological Effects of Microwaves”, Microwave Review, November, 2005
IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 102, 1 (2013).
Belpomme D, Hardell L, Belyaev I, Burgio E, Carpenter DO. Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective. Environ Pollut. 2018 Nov;242(Pt A):643-658. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.019. Epub 2018 Jul 6. PMID: 30025338.
Yakymenko I, Tsybulin O, Sidorik E, Henshel D, Kyrylenko O, Kyrylenko S. Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation. Electromagn Biol Med. 2016;35(2):186-202. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2015.1043557. Epub 2015 Jul 7. PMID: 26151230.
Daniel T. Debaun, “ How EMFs Biologically Impact the Body’s Cells and Damage DNA”, Last updated October 19, 2020 https://www.defendershield.com/author/dandebaun
Ali, M. Y., Zahed, N. M. R., Uddin, M. N., & Uddin, M. J. (2016). Similarity Solutions for an Internal Heat Generation, Thermal Radiation and Free Convection Unsteady Boundary Layer Flow over a Vertical Plate. Journal of Scientific Research, 8(3), 341–353.
Sedani, B. & Kotak, N. & Borisagar, K.. (2021). Critical Review on Effect of 5G Technology on Covid-19 and Human Health Issues. Journal of Scientific Research. 13. 695-705. 10.3329/jsr.v13i2.49514.
Kim, K.; Lee, Y.S.; Kim, N.; Choi, H.-D.; Kang, D.-J.; Kim, H.R.; Lim, K.-M. Effects of Electromagnetic Waves with LTE and 5G Bandwidth on the Skin Pigmentation In Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 170.
C. Verma, T. M. Tejaswini, and D. Pradhan, Harmful Effects of 5G Radiations: Review – Proc. of IRAJ Int. Conf. (2019).
Neufeld, Esra; Kuster, Niels, “ Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose” Health Physics: December 2018 - Volume 115 - Issue 6 - p 705-711.
Anthony B. Miller et al., “Risk to Health and Well-Being From Radio-Frequency Radiation Emitted by Cell phones and Other Wireless Devices”, Frontier in Public Health, Vol.7, 2019.
Mehmet Akdag and Suleyman Dasdag and Fazile Canturk and Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag “Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phones induced DNA damage in human ear canal hair follicle cells”, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Vol. 37, No. 2, Pages 66-75, 2018.
Redmayne, M., Smith, E. & Abramson, M.J. The relationship between adolescents’ well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health 12, 90 (2013).
BioInitiative Working Group, A Rationale for Biologically-Based Exposure Standards for Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Radiation (2012).